In the last few years the importance of exercise has become even more significant for people with Parkinson’s. Research is showing that a tailored Parkinson’s specific exercise programme is important for your health. This means that alongside medication and therapies, the right kind of exercise can improve your overall physical ability, your symptoms and the quality of your life.
Practicing your walking is very important if you have started to shuffle, trip, lose your confidence, or if you have lost your arm swing.
Agility helps you to move quickly and easily. Stepping around a chair can help with maintaining your agility.
Difficulties with fine motor control can cause trouble with writing, cutting up food, turning the pages, or doing up buttons or shoelaces.
References for “A Parkinson’s specific exercise programme”
1. Abrantes AM, Friedman JH, Brown RA, et al. Physical activity and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease. J Geriatr Psych Neur 2012;25:138-145.
2. Agid, Y.; Javoy-Agid, M.; Ruberg, M., editors. Biochemistry of neurotransmitters in Parkinson's disease. Vol. 2. London: Butterworth's and Co; 1987.
3. Ahlskog JE (2018) Aerobic exercise: Evidence for a direct brain effect to slow Parkinson disease progression. Mayo Clin Proc 93, 360-372.
4. Ahlskog JE. Does vigorous exercise have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson’s disease? Neurology 2011; 77:288-294
5. Aizenstein HJ, Stenger VA, Cochran J, Clark K, Johnson M, Nebes RD, et al. Regional brain activation during concurrent implicit and explicit sequence learning. Cerebral Cortex. 2004; 14(2): 199–208. [PubMed: 14704217]
6. Allen N, Canning C, Sherrington C, Fung V. Bradykinesia, muscle weakness and reduced muscle power in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24(9): 1344-1351.
7. Allen N, Sherrington C, Paul S, Canning C. Balance and falls in Parkinson’s disease: a metaanalysis of the effect of exercise and motor training. Mov Disord 2011; 26(9):1605-1615.
8. Allen NE, Moloney N, van Vliet V, Canning CG. The Rationale for Exercise in the Management of Pain in Parkinson's Disease. J Parkinsons Dis. 2015;5(2):229-39. doi: 10.3233/JPD-140508.
9. Allen NE, Schwarzel AK, Canning CG: Recurrent falls in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review. Parkinsons Dis 2013, 2013:906274.
10. Allen NE, Sherrington C, Paul SS, Canning CG. Balance and falls in Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of the effect of exercise and motor training. Mov Disord 2011;26:1605-1615.
11. Altmann LJ, Stegemoller E, Hazamy AA, Wilson JP, Bowers D, Okun MS, Hass CJ (2016) Aerobic exercise improves mood, cognition, and language function in Parkinson’s disease: Results of a controlled study. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 22, 878-889.
12. Alves G, Wentzel-Larsen T, Aarsland D, Larsen JP. Progression of motor impairment and disability in Parkinson disease: a population-based study. Neurology 2005;65:1436-41.
13. American College of Sports Medicine (2018) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 10th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.  Ellis T, Boudreau JK, DeAngelis TR, Brown LE, Cavanaugh JT, Earhart GM, Ford MP, Foreman KB, Dibble LE (2013) Barriers to exercise in people with Parkinson disease. Phys Ther 93, 628-636.
14. Andrews AW, Chinworth SA, Bourassa M, Garvin M, Benton D, Tanner S. Update on distance and velocity requirements for community ambulation. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2010;33:128-34.
15. Archer T, Fredriksson A, Johansson B. Exercise alleviates Parkinsonism; Clinical and laboratory evidence. Acta Neurol Scan; 2011; 123; 73-84
16. Ashburn A, Stack E, Ballinger C, Fazakarley L, Fitton C: The circumstances of falls among people with Parkinson’s disease and the use of Falls Diaries to facilitate reporting. Disabil Rehabil 2008, 30:1205–1212.
17. Asher L, Aresu M, Falaschetti E, Mindell J. Most older pedestrians are unable to cross the road in time: a cross-sectional study. Age Ageing 2012;41:690-4.
18. Atterbury EM, Welman KE (2017) Balance training in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: Therapist supervised vs. home-based exercise programme. Gait Posture 55, 138-144.
19. Backer JH. The symptom experience of patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosci Nurs 2006;38:51-7.
20. Bartels AL, Balash Y, Gurevich T, Schaafsma JD, Hausdorff JM, Giladi N. Relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and other features of Parkinson’s: FOG is not correlated with bradykinesia. J Clin Neurosci 2003;10:584-8.
21. Bekkers EMJ, Dijkstra BW, Dockx K, Heremans E, Verschueren SMP, Nieuwboer A. Clinical balance scales indicate worse postural control
22. Bello O, Sanchez JA, Fernandez del Olmo M. Treadmill walking in Parkinson’s disease patients; adaptation and generalisation effect. Mov Disord 2008; 23 (9); 1243
23. Bellou V, Belbasis L, Tzoulaki I, Evangelou E, Ioannidis JP. Environmental risk factors and Parkinson’s disease: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2016;
24. Beradelli A, Rothwell J, Thompson P, Hallett M. Pathophysiology of bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 2001; 134: 2131-2146
25. Bladh S, Nilsson MH, Hariz GM, Westergren A, Hobart J, Hagell P: Psychometric performance of a generic walking scale (Walk-12G) in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 2012, 259:729–738.
26. Bloem BR, Grimbergen YA, van Dijk JG, Munneke M: The “posture second” strategy: a review of wrong priorities in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci 2006, 248:196–204.
27. Bloem BR, Hausdorff JM, Visser JE, Giladi N. Falls and freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: a review of two interconnected, episodic phenomena. Mov Disord 2004; 19: 871–84.
28. Bloem BR, Marinus J, Almeida Q, Dibble L, Nieuwboer A, Post B, et al. Measurement instruments to assess posture, gait, and balance in Parkinson’s disease: critique and recommendations. Mov Disord 2016; 31: 1342–55.
29. Bloem, B. R., Hausdorff, J. M., Visser, J. E. & Giladi, N. Falls and freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: a review of two interconnected, episodic phenomena. Mov Disord 19, 871–884 (2004).
30. Bloem, B. R., Munneke, M., Carpenter, M. G. & Allum, J. H. The impact of comorbid disease and injuries on resource use and expenditures in parkinsonism. Neurology 61, 1023; author reply 1023–1024 (2003).
31. Brauer S, Morris M. Can people with Parkinson’s disease improve dual tasking when walking? Gait and Posture 2010; 31 : 229–233
32. CaciulaMC, HorvatM, Tomporowski PD, Nocera J(2016) The effects of exercise frequency on executive function in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Ment Health Phys Act 10, 18-24.
33. Cadet P, Zhu W, Mantione K, Rymer M, Dardik I, Reisman S, Hagberg S, Stefano G. Cyclic exercise induces anti-inflammatory signal molecules increases in the plasma of Parkinson’s patients. Inter J Molecular Med 2003; 12: 485-492.
34. Cakit BD, Saracoglu M, Genc H, Erdem HR, Inan L (2007) The effects of incremental speeddependent treadmill training on postural instability and fear of falling in Parkinson’s disease. Clin Rehabil 21, 698-705.
35. Calne SM and Kumar A. Young onset Parkinson’s disease. Practical management of medical issues. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2008; 14: 133–142.
36. Campenhausena S, Bornscheina B, Wickb R, Bo¨tzelf K, Sampaiod C, Poewee W, Oertelb W, Siebertg U, Bergerc K, Dodela R. Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson’s disease in Europe. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 473 – 490
37. Canning C, Ada L, Woodhouse E. Multiple-task walking training in people with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease; a pilot study. Clin Rehabil e2008; 22: 226-233
38. Canning C, Allen NE, Dean CM, Goh L, Fung VSC. Home-Based Treadmill training for individuals with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Clin Rehabil 2012; 26(9) 817-826.
39. Canning C, Sherrington C, Lord S, Fung V, Close J, Latt M, Howard K, Allen N, O’Rourke S, Murray S. Exercise therapy for prevention of falls in people with Parkinson’s disease: A protocol for a randomised controlled trail and economic evaluation. BMC Neurology 2013; 28(S1).
40. Carpenter MG, Allum JH, Honegger F, Adkin AL, Bloem BR: Postural abnormalities to multidirectional stance perturbations in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004, 75:1245–1254.
41. Carr J, Shepherd R. Neurological Rehabilitation: Optimizing motor performance. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. 1987
42. Cerin E, Barnett A, Sit CH, et al. Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity. BMC Public Health 2011;11:851.
43. Christiansen CL, Schenkman ML, McFann K, Wolfe P, Kohrt WM: Walking economy in people with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009, 24:1481–1487.
44. Colcombe S, Kramer AF (2003) Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Psychol Sci 14, 125-130.
45. Conradsson D, Lofgren N, Nero H, Hagstromer M, Stahle A, Lokk J, Franzen E (2015) The effects of highly challenging balance training in elderly with Parkinson’s disease: A randomized controlled trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 29, 827-836.
46. Conradsson D, Löfgren N, Nero H, Hagströmer M, Ståhle A, Lökk J, Franzén E. The Effects of Highly Challenging Balance Training in Elderly With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Oct;29(9):827-36. doi: 10.1177/1545968314567150. Epub 2015 Jan 21.
47. Corcos DM, Robichaud J, Leurgans D, Vaillancourt D, Poon C, Rafferty M, Kohrt W, Comella C. A two-year randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance exercise for Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2013; 28(9):1230-40.
48. Cramer et al. Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications. Brain 2011; 134; 1591–1609
49. Crenna P, Carpinella I, Rabuffetti M, Calabrese E, Mazzoleni P, Nemni R, Ferrarin M: The association between impaired turning and normal straight walking in Parkinson’s disease. Gait Posture 2007, 26:172–178.
50. Cruise K, Bucks R, Loftus A, Newton R, Pegoraro R, Thomas M. Exercise and Parkinson’s; benefits for cognition and quality of life. Acta Neurol Scand 2011; 123:13-19
51. Cruise KE, Bucks RS, Loftus AM, Newton RU, Pegoraro R, Thomas MG (2011) Exercise and Parkinson’s: Benefits for cognition and quality of life. Acta Neurol Scand 123, 13-19.
52. Cusso ME, Donald KJ, Khoo TK (2016) The impact of physical activity on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review. Front Med (Lausanne) 3, 35.
53. da Silva FC, Iop RDR, de Oliveira LC, Boll AM, de Alvarenga JGS, Gutierres Filho PJB, de MeloL, Xavier AJ, da Silva R (2018) Effects of physical exercise programs on cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease patients: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the last 10 years. PLoS One 13, e0193113.
54. de Natale ER, Paulus KS, Aiello E, Sanna B, Manca A, Sotgiu G, Leali PT, Deriu F (2017) Dance therapy improves motor and cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease. NeuroRehabilitation 40, 141-144.
55. Deandrea, S. et al. Risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology 21, 658–668 (2010).
56. Dibble L, Hale T, Marcus R, Droge J, Gerber J, LaStayo P. High-Intensity resistance training amplified muscle hypertrophy and functional gains in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2006 21(9): 1444-52
57. Dinoff A, Herrmann N, Swardfager W, Liu CS, Sherman C, Chan S, Lanctot KL (2016) The effect of exercise training on resting concentrations of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): A meta-analysis PLoS One 11, e0163037.
58. Divac I, Rosvold HE, Szwarcbart MK. Behavioral effects of selective ablation of the caudate nucleus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 1967; 63(2):184–190. [PubMed: 4963561]
59. Dobkin BH (2017) A rehabilitation-internet-of-things in the home to augment motor skills and exercise training. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 31, 217-227.
60. Doyon J, Penhune V, Ungerleider LG. Distinct contribution of the cortico-striatal and corticocerebellar systems to motor skill learning. Neuropsychologia. 2003; 41(3):252–262. [PubMed: 12457751]
61. Duchesne C, Gheysen F. Influence of aerobic exercise training on the neural correlates of motor learning in Parkinson's disease individuals. Neuroimage Clin. 2016 Sep 14;12:559-569
62. Duchesne C, Lungu O, Nadeau A, Robillard ME, Bore A, Bobeuf F, Lafontaine AL, Gheysen F, Bherer L, Doyon J (2015) Enhancing both motor and cognitive functioning in Parkinson’s disease: Aerobic exercise as a rehabilitative intervention. Brain Cogn 99, 68-77.
63. Ellis T, Boudreau J, DeAngelis T, Brown L, Cavanaugh J, Earhart G, Ford M, Foreman K, Dibble L. Barriers to Exercise in People with Parkinson Disease. Physical Therapy 2013: 10.2522/tj.20120279
64. Ellis T, Boudreau JK, Deangelis TR, Brown LE, Cavanaugh JT, Earhart GM, Ford MP, Foreman KB, Dibble LE: Barriers to exercise in people with Parkinson disease. Phys Ther 2013, 93:628–636.
65. Ellis TD, Cavanaugh JT, DeAngelis TR, Hendron K, Thomas CA, Saint-Hilaire M, Latham N (2018) Comparative effectiveness of mHealth supported exercise compared to exercisealone for people with Parkinson disease: Randomized controlled pilot study. Phys Ther. in press.
66. Engeroff T, Ingmann T, Banzer W (2018) Physical activity throughout the adult life span and domain specific cognitive function in old age: A systematic review of cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Sports Med 48, 1405-1436.
67. Farley B, Fox C, Ramig L, McFarland D. Intensive Amplitude-specific Therapeutic Approaches for Parkinson’s disease. Toward a neuroplasticity-principled Rehabilitation model. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation 2008; 24(2):99-114.
68. Farley B, Koshland G. Training BIG to move faster; the application of the speed-amplitude relation as a rehabilitation strategy for people with Parkinson’s disease. Exp Brain Res 2005; 167 (3): 462-467.
69. Fisher B Wu A, Salem G, Song J, Lin C, Yip J, Cen S, Gordon J, Jakowec M, Petzinger G. The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson’s disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89 (7): 1221-9.
70. Fisher BE, Li Q, Nacca A, et al. Treadmill exercise elevates striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding potential in patients with early Parkinson’s disease. Neuroreport 2013;24:509-514.
71. Flach A, Jaegers L, Krieger M, Bixler E, Kelly P, Weiss EP, Ahmad SO (2017) Endurance exercise improves function in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: A meta analysis. Neurosci Lett 659, 115-119.
72. Forsaa, E. B., Larsen, J. P., Wentzel-Larsen, T. & Alves, G. A 12-year population-based study of freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 21, 254–258 (2015).
73. Fraix V, Bastin J, David O, Goetz L, Ferraye M, Benabid AL, et al. Pedunculopontine nucleus area oscillations during stance, stepping and freezing in Parkinson’s disease. PLoS One 2013; 8: e83919.
74. Franchignoni F, Martignoni E, Ferriero G, Pasetti C: Balance and fear of falling in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2005, 11:427–433.
75. Frazzitta G, Bertolli G, Riboldazzi G, Marinella T, Uccellini D, Boveri N, Guaglio G, Perini M, Comi C, Balbi P, Maestri R. Effectiveness of intensive inpatient rehabilitation treatment on disease progression in parkinsonian patients: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2012; 26(2):144-150.
76. Frazzitta G, Maestri R, Bertotti G, Riboldazzi G, Boveri N, Perini M, Uccelini D, Turla M, Comi C, Pezzoli G, Ghilardi M. Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment in Early Parkinson’s disease: A Randomised Pilot Study with a 2-year follow up. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2014: (epub ahead of print)
77. Frazzitta G, Maestri R, Ghilardi M, Riboldazzi G, Perini M, Bertolli G, Boveri N, Buttini S, Lombino F, Uccelini D, Turla M, Pezzoli G, Comi C. Intensive rehabilitation increases BDNF serum levels in parkinsonian patients: a randomised study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2014: 28(2):163-168.
78. Frazzitta G, Maestri R, Uccelini D, Bertotti G, Abelli P. Rehabilitation treatment of gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease with freezing: a comparison between two physical therapy protocols using visual and auditory cues with or without treadmill training. Mov Disord 2009; 24 (8): 1139-1143.
79. Giladi N, Kao R, Fahn S. Freezing phenomenon in patients with parkinsonian syndromes. Mov Disord 1997;12:302-5.
81. Giladi N, Nieuwboer A. Understanding and treating freezing of gait in parkinsonism, proposed working definition, and setting the stage. Mov Disord 2008;23(Suppl 2):423-5
82. Glasauer S, Straka H. Postural control: learning to balance is a question of timing. Curr Biol 2017; 27: R105–7.
83. Goodwin V, Richards S, Taylor R, Taylor A, Campbell J. The effectiveness of exercise interventions for people with Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mov Disord 2008; 23 (5): 631-40.
84. Hass CJ, Buckley TA, Pitsikoulis C, Barthelemy EJ (2012) Progressive resistance training improves gait initiation in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Gait Posture 35, 669-673.
85. He Y, Zhang X, Yung W, Zhu J, Wang J. Role of BDNF in central motor structures and motor diseases. Molecular Neurobiology 2013 Dec; Vol. 48 (3), pp. 783-93
86. Helmich RC, Hallett M, Deuschl G, Toni I, Bloem BR. Cerebral causes and consequences of parkinsonian resting tremor: a tale of two circuits? Brain. 2012 Nov;135(Pt 11):3206-26. doi:10.1093/brain/aws023. Epub 2012 Mar
87. Hirsch MA, Iyer SS, Sanjak M. Exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson's disease: What is the evidence telling us? Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016 Jan;22 Suppl 1:S78-81. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.09.030. Epub 2015 Sep 15
88. Hirsh M, Farley B. Exercise and Neuroplasticity in Persons living with Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2009; 45: 215-229.
89. Hirsh M, Toole T, Maitland C, Rider R. The effects of balance training and high-intensity resistance training on persons with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84 (8):1109-1117.
90. Hiyamizu M, Morioka S, Shomoto K, Shimada T. Effects of dual task balance training on dualtask performance ability in elderly people; a randomised control trial. Clin Rehabil 2011;26(1):58-67
91. Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression, and mortality. Neurology 1967; 17:427-42.
92. Horak FB, Nutt JG, Nashner LM. Postural inflexibility in parkinsonian subjects. J Neurol Sci 1992; 111: 46–58.
93. Kelly N, Ford M, Standaert D, Watts R, Bickel C, Moellering D, Tuggle S, Williams J, Lieb L, Windham S, Bamman M. Novel, high-intensity exercise prescription improves muscle mass, mitochondrial function, and physical capacity in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. J Appl Physiol 2014: 116(5): 582-92
94. Kelly VE, Eusterbrock AJ, Shumway-Cook A: A review of dual-task walking deficits in people with Parkinson’s disease: motor and cognitive contributions, mechanisms, and clinical implications. Parkinsons Dis 2012, 2012:918719.
95. Kelly VE, Johnson CO, McGough EL, Shumway-Cook A, Horak FB, Chung KA, Espay AJ, Revilla FJ, Devoto J, Wood-Siverio C, Factor SA, Cholerton B, Edwards KL, Peterson AL, Quinn JF, Montine TJ, Zabetian CP, Leverenz JB (2015) Association of cognitive domains with postural instability/gait disturbance in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 21, 692-697.
96. Kerr, G. K. et al. Predictors of future falls in Parkinson disease. Neurology 75, 116–124 (2010).
97. Keus S, BLoem B, Hendriks E, Bredero-Cohen A, Munneke M. Evidence-based analysis of physical therapy in Parkinson’s disease with recommendations for practice and research. Mov Disord 2007; 22 (4): 451-460
98. Keus SHJ, Munneke M, Graziano M, Paltamaa J, Pelosin E, Domingos J, Bruhlmann S, Ramaswamy B, Prins J, Struiksma C, Rochester L, Nieuwboer A, Bloem B (2014) European physiotherapy guideline for Parkinson’s disease. KNGF/ParkinsonNet, the Netherlands.
99. Kim SD, Allen NE, Canning CG, Fung VS. Postural instability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. CNS Drugs 2013; 27: 97–112.
100. Knaepen K, Goekint M, Heyman EM, Meeusen R (2010) Neuroplasticity - exercise induced response of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor: A systematic review of experimental studies in human subjects. Sports Med 40, 765-801.
101. Kramer AF, Erickson KI (2007) Capitalizing on cortical plasticity: Influence of physical activity on cognition and brain function. Trends Cogn Sci 11, 342-348.
102. Lang AE, Espay AJ (2018) Disease modification in Parkinson’s disease: Current approaches, challenges, and future considerations. Mov Disord 33, 660-677.
103. Lauze M, Daneault JF, Duval C (2016) The effects of physical activity in Parkinson’s disease: A review. J Parkinsons Dis 6, 685-698.
104. Lawn S and Schoo A. Supporting self-management of chronic health conditions: common approaches. Patient Educ Couns 2010; 80: 205–211.
105. Li FZ, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. New Engl J Med 2012;366: 511-519.
106. Lord, S. et al. Predicting first fall in newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease: Insights from a fall-naive cohort. Mov Disord (2016).
107. Mak MK, Hui-Chan CW. Cued task-specific training is better than exercise in improving sit-to-stand in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled trial. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 501-509.
108. Mak MK, Pang MY, Mok V: Gait difficulty, postural instability, and muscle weakness are associated with fear of falling in people with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsons Dis 2012, 2012:901721.
109. Merholz J, Friis R, Kugler J, Twork S, Storch A, Pohl M. Treadmill training for people with Parkinson’s disease. Cochrane Library 2010.
110. Miyai I, Fujimoto Y, Yamamoto H, Ueda Y, Saito T, Nozaki S, Kang J. Long-term effect of body-weight supported treadmill training in Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 1370-1373.
111. Morberg b, Jensen J, Bode M, Wermuth L. The impact of high intensity physical training on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PIP): A preliminary study. NeuroRehabilitation 2014: (Epub ahead of print)
112. Nadeau A, Lungu O, Duchesne C, Robillard ME, Bore A, Bobeuf F, Plamondon R, Lafontaine AL, Gheysen F, Bherer L, Doyon J (2016) A 12-week cycling training regimen improves gait and executive functions concomitantly in people with Parkinson’s disease. Front Hum Neurosci 10, 690.
113. Nadeau A, Pourcher E, Corbeil P (2014) Effects of 24 week of treadmill training on gait performance in Parkinson’s disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc 46, 645-655.
114. Nieuwboer A, Kwakkel G, Rochester L, Jones D, van Wegen E, Williems AM, Chavret F et al. Cueing training in the home improves gait-related mobility in Parkinson’s disease: the RESCUE trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007; 78(2): 134-140
115. Oeda, T., Umemura, A., Mori, Y., Tomita, S., Kohsaka, M., Park, K., et al. (2015). Impact of glucocerebrosidase mutations on motor and nonmotor complications in Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 36(12), 3306–3313.
116. Petzinger G, Fisher B, Van Leeuwen J, Vukovic M, Akopian G, Meshul C, Holschneider D, Nacca A, Walsh J, Jakowec M. Enhancing Neuroplasticity in the Basal Ganglia: The role of exercise in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2010; 25(Suppl 1): S141-S145.
117. Petzinger GM, Fisher BE, McEwen S, Beeler JA, Walsh JP, Jakowec MW. Exercise enhanced neuroplasticity targeting motor and cognitive circuitry in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12:716-726.
118. Petzinger GM, Holschneider DP, Fisher BE, et al. The effects of exercise on dopamine neurotransmission in Parkinson’s disease: targeting neuroplasticity to modulate basal ganglia circuitry. Brain Plast 2015;1:29-39.
119. Petzinger GM, Holschneider DP, Fisher BE, McEwen S, Kintz N, Halliday M, Toy W, Walsh JW, Beeler J, Jakowec MW (2015) The effects of exercise on dopamine neurotransmission in Parkinson’s disease: Targeting neuroplasticity to modulate basal ganglia circuitry. Brain Plast 1, 29-39.
120. Picelli A, Varalta V, Melotti C, Zatezalo V, Fonte C, Amato S, Saltuari L, Santamato A, Fiore P, Smania N (2016) Effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor features of patients with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease: A pilot, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Funct Neurol 31, 25-31.
121. Popiolkiewicz V, McConaghy M, Scrivener K, Dean C. PD Warrior Program Evaluation: Participants’ satisfaction, feedback and health status survey. [Unpublished]
122. Ridgel AL, Kim CH, Fickes EJ, Muller MD, Alberts JL. Changes in executive function after acute bouts of passive cycling in Parkinson’s disease. J Aging Phys Act 2011;19:87-98.
123. Ridgel AL, Phillips RS, Walter BL, Discenzo FM, Loparo KA (2015) Dynamic high cadence cycling improves motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Front Neurol 6, 194.
124. Rochester L, Baker K, Hetherington V, Jones D, Willems A, Kwakkel G, Van WEgen E, Lim I, Nieuwboer A. Evidence for motor learning in Parkinson’s disease: Acquisition, automaticity and retention of cued gait performance after training with external rhythmical cues. Brain Res 2010; 1319:103-111.
125. Schaafsma JD, Balash Y, Gurevich T, Bartels AL, Hausdorff JM, Giladi N. Characterization of freezing of gait subtypes and the response of each to levodopa in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol 2003;10:391-8.
126. Silva-Batista C, Corcos DM, Roschel H, Kanegusuku H, Gobbi LT, Piemonte ME, Mattos EC, MT DEM, Forjaz CL, Tricoli V, Ugrinowitsch C (2016) Resistance training with instability for patients with Parkinson’s disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc 48, 1678-1687.
127. Silveira CRA, Roy EA, Intzandt BN, Almeida QJ (2018) Aerobic exercise is more effective than goal-based exercise for the treatment of cognition in Parkinson’s disease. Brain Cogn 122, 1-8.
128. Snijders AH, Nijkrake MJ, Bakker M, Munneke M, Wind C, Bloem BR. Clinimetrics of freezing of gait. Mov Disord 2008; 23(Suppl 2):468-74.
129. Snijders AH, Takakusaki K, Debu B, Lozano AM, Krishna V, Fasano A, et al. Physiology of freezing of gait. Ann Neurol 2016; 80: 644–59.
130. Springer S, Giladi N, Peretz C et al. Dual-Tasking effects on gait variability: the role of aging, falls and executive function. Mov Disord 2006; 21:950-957
131. Stuckenschneider T, Helmich I, Raabe-Oetker A, Frobose I, Feodoroff B (2015) Active assistive forced exercise provides long-term improvement to gait velocity and stride length in patients bilaterally affected by Parkinson’s disease. Gait Posture 42, 485-490.
132. Tanaka K, Quadros AC, Jr., Santos RF, Stella F, Gobbi LT, Gobbi S. Benefits of physical exercise on executive functions in older people with Parkinson’s disease. Brain Cogn 2009;69:435-441.
133. Tanner CM, Comella CL. When brawn benefits brain: physical activity and Parkinson’s disease risk. Brain 2015; 138: 238–39.
134. Tomlinson C, Patel S, Meek C, Herd C, Clarke C, Stowe R, Shah L, Sackley C, Deane K, Wheatley K, Ives N. Physiotherapy intervention in Parkinson’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2012;345:e5004 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e5004 (Published 6 August 2012)
135. Uc EY, Doerschug KC, Magnotta V, Dawson JD, Thomsen TR, Kline JN, Rizzo M, Newman SR, Mehta S, Grabowski TJ, Bruss J, Blanchette DR, Anderson SW, Voss MW, Kramer AF, Darling WG (2014) Phase I/II randomized trial of aerobic exercise in Parkinson disease in a community setting. Neurology 83, 413-425.
136. Uhrbrand A, Stenager E, Pedersen MS, Dalgas U (2015) Parkinson’s disease and intensive exercise therapy–a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Neurol Sci 353, 9-19.
137. Van Nimwegen M, Speelman A, Smulders K, Overeem S, Borm G, Backx F, Bloem B, Munneke M. Design and baseline characteristics of the ParkFit study, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multifaceted behavioral program to increase physical activity in Parkinson patients. BMC Neurology 2010, 10:70 doi:10.1186/1471-2377-10-70
138. Victor Popiolkiewicz, Melissa McConaghy, Dr Kate Scrivener, Prof Catherine Dean. PD Warrior program evaluation: Participants’ satisfaction, feedback and health status. Sep 23, 2015 - Physiotherapy Conference 2015 Gold Coast Convention and Exhibition Centre
139. Xu Q, Park Y, Huang X et al. Physical activities and future risk of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2010; 75:341-348.
140. Ypinga JHL, de Vries NM, Boonen LHHM, Koolman X, Munneke M, Zwinderman AH, Bloem BR (2018) Effectiveness and costs of specialised physiotherapy given via ParkinsonNet: a retrospective analysis of medical claims data. Lancet Neurol 17, 153-161